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Murphy's Gesetz



  1. Nothing is as easy as it looks.
  2. Everything takes longer than you think.
  3. If there's a possibility of several things going wrong, the one that will cause the most damage will be the one to go wrong.
  4. If you perceive that there are four possible ways in which a procedure can go wrong, and circumvent these, then a fifth way will promptly develop.
  5. Left to themselves, things tend to go from bad to worse
  6. Whenever you set out to do something, something else must be done first.
  7. Every solution breeds new problems.
  8. It is impossible to make anything foolproof because fools are so ingenious.
  9. Nature always sides with the hidden flaw.
  10. Mother nature is a bitch.

KLIPSTEIN'S LAWS (Applied to Prototyping and Production)

  1. Tolerances will accumulate unidirectionally toward maximum difficulty to assamble.
  2. If a project requires 'n' components, there will be 'n-1' units in stock.
  3. A motor will rotate in the wrong direction.
  4. A fail-safe circuit will destroy others.
  5. A transistor protected by a fast-acting fuse will be protect the fuse by blowing first.
  6. A failure will not appear till a unit has passsed the final inspection.
  7. After the last of 16 mounting screws has been removed from an access cover, it will be discovered that the wrong access cover has been removed.
  8. After an access cover has been secured by 16 hold-down screws, it will be discovered that the gasket has been omitted.


  1. Computers are unreliable, but humans are even more unreliable.
  2. Any system which depends on human reliability is unreliable.
  3. Undetectable errors are unfinite in variaty, in contrast to detectable errors, which by definition are detectable.
  4. Investments in reliability will increase until it exceeds the probable cost of errors, or someone insists on getting some usefull work.